Friday, August 9, 2013

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Install Memcache on CentOS 6 cPanel

Here is how to install Memcache for PHP on a CentOS 6 cPanel / WHM box. Some of the guides suggest that you need libevent (well, you do need libevent), though when I tried it, I already had it installed. But if you need it, yum will sort you out.
yum install libevent
Next, install memcache itself. Note that the package is called memcached.
yum install memcached
Of course, just installing it doesn’t mean that the daemon is running. So don’t forget to start it too!
/etc/init.d/memcached start
Finally, we need to add the PHP extension. Beware that the PECL installer on WHM won’t work! So you need to compile it manually from source. That isn’t too difficult though.
tar zxvf memcache
cd memcache-3.0.6
make install
And add the extension to your php.ini.
Now restart Apache and a memcache section should appear in your PHP info.
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Thursday, August 8, 2013

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Linux: HowTo Copy a Folder [ Command Line Option ]

I'm a new Linux user. How do I copy a directory or folder under Linux operating system using command line options and bash shell?

You can use various command to copy a folder under Linux operating systems.

cp Command

cp is a Linux command for copying files and directories. The syntax is as follows:
cp source destination
cp dir1 dir2
cp -option  source destination
cp -option1 -option2  source destination
In this example copy /home/vivek/letters folder and all its files to /usb/backup directory:
cp -avr /home/vivek/letters /usb/backup
  • -a : Preserve the specified attributes such as directory an file mode, ownership, timestamps, if possible additional attributes: context, links, xattr, all.
  • -v : Explain what is being done.
  • -r : Copy directories recursively.


Copy a folder called /tmp/conf to /tmp/backup:
$ cp -avr /tmp/conf/ /tmp/backup
Sample outputs:
HowTO: Copy Folder Linux Terminal Command
Fig.01: cp command in action

rsync Command

You can also use rsync command which is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can make copies across the network. The syntax is as follows:
rsync -av /path/to/source /path/to/destination
rsync -av /path/to/source/ /path/to/destination/source
To backup my home directory, which consists of large files and mail folders to /media/backup, enter:
$ rsync -avz /home/vivek /media/backup
I can copy a folder to remote machine called
$ rsync -avz /home/vivek/
  • -a : Archive mode i.e. copy a folder with all its permission and other information including recursive copy.
  • -v : Verbose mode.
  • -z : With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted — something that is useful over a slow connection.
You can show progress during transfer using --progress or -P option:
$ rsync -av --progress /path/to/source/ /path/to/dest
Sample outputs:
Copy Folder Linux Commands [ rsync ]
Fig.02: rsync command in action
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[CPanel] Auto fix for file permissions and ownership

suPHP and FastCGI require files and folders to have a specific set of permissions/ownership from other handlers. Without these permissions set you will see a lot of errors such as: “403 Forbidden”, “500 Internal Server Error”, or simply generic errors that commonly have the word ‘permission’ in them.
It can be very time consuming to track down and check file permissions across a whole server. Luckily, fixing this on a cPanel box can be scripted. This gives us a quick and very easy script you can wget to any cPanel server. Simply run the ‘fixperms’ script, specifying the user (or all users), sit back and watch the errors just disappear. I use this script daily in my administrative work and it never fails! It is simply a good generic fix if you cannot find your permission problem, or if you have just switched your handler and need a quick way to change every user account on the server.
Credit does not go to me though. A good buddy of mine, Colin R., wrote this for ServInt. Thanks Colin for making lives easier!
***WARNING!!! The following scripts are intended for suPHP or FastCGI. If you are not running either of these two handlers, be aware of how the script works and the changes it makes. The code is posted at the end of this article; please take a moment to review it. For example, when running DSO, some files/folders may need to be owned by ‘nobody’ in order to function properly (such as in certain WordPress functions or PHP based file uploads). Running this fixperms will set everything to USER:USER. Under DSO, this is potentially not a problem for most sites, except a few core functions may not work. You can always change specific files later if any errors pop up.
Furthermore, it is highly recommended that you run a full backup of your server before running fixperms or any other script that makes changes to multiple files.
This ‘fixperms’ script is intended for cPanel servers only. It is dependent on cPanel’s internal scripts and file structure. If you’re on anything else (such as Plesk), it will simply fail to run. It won’t be able to do anything.
I know that criteria sounds very specific, but those two conditions cover a large number of the reseller/multi-user hosting servers out there. And that’s really the crowd that would benefit most from an automated script such as this.
That all being said, if you are running suPHP or FastCGI, press on; for this script will work flawlessly for you and potentially save you a TON of time & hassle.

Fixperms – for one single user

To use the fixperms script, simply log into your server as root, wget the file from our server, then run it. Type in the cPanel username and it will run only for that particular account.
It does not matter which directory you are in when you run fixperms. You can be in the user’s home directory, the server root, etc. The script will not affect anything outside of the particular user’s folder.

Fixperms – for all of the users

If you would like fix the permissions for every user on your cPanel server, simply use the ‘-all’ option:

Verbosity of Fixperms

By default, the script runs in a ‘quiet’ mode with minimal display. However, if you’re like me, you may want to see everything that is happening. You can turn on verbosity and have the script print to the screen everything that is being changed. I find this extremely useful when fixing large accounts that have many files. You can watch the changes as a sort of ‘progress bar’ of completion. The ‘-v’ option can be used per account or with all accounts.
For one single account:
For all accounts:
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